Technology and application of the hottest nano pac

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Nano packaging material technology and its application

the last century was 100 years of rapid development of science, technology and culture. All kinds of new things continue to emerge, especially the emergence of new materials, especially the emergence and application of nano materials, which are about to and are changing the whole world. In the 1990s, countries around the world set off a climax of developing new nano materials. Because of the uniqueness, magic and universality of nanotechnology, many excellent scientists all over the world have worked hard for it. Some scientists even believe that the epoch-making "nanotechnology" is comparable to the "industrial revolution" of the 18th century and will cause a new "industrial revolution"

nano is the unit of length, and 1 nano is the meter. For macro materials, nano is a very small unit. Because the grain size is much finer than that of conventional materials, the number of atoms at the grain boundary is more than that inside the grain, which gives nano materials many special excellent properties. Compared with conventional materials, in addition to excellent mechanical properties, nano materials also show better physical and chemical properties, including photoelectric properties, electromagnetic properties and thermal properties

it is generally believed that nano materials should include two basic conditions: one is that the characteristic size of the material is between 1-100nm, and the other is that the material has some special physical and chemical properties different from conventional size materials at this time. From the research status so far, there are three concepts about nanotechnology

the first is the concept of molecular nano proposed by American scientists in 1986. According to this concept, the machine of combinatorial molecules can be applied, so that all kinds of molecules can be combined arbitrarily, and any kind of molecular structure can be produced

the second concept positions nanotechnology as the limit of micromachining technology. That is, the technology of artificially forming nanoscale structures through nano precision "processing". This nanoscale processing technology also makes semiconductor miniaturization about to reach its limit. Even if the existing technology continues to develop, theoretically speaking, it will reach the limit. This is because if the wire amplitude of the circuit is reduced, the insulating film constituting the circuit will become extremely thin, which will destroy the insulation effect. In addition, there are problems such as heating and shaking. In order to solve these problems, researchers are studying new nanotechnology

the third concept is proposed from the perspective of biology. Originally, organisms have nanoscale structures in cells and biofilms

nano packaging technology can be divided into four categories in terms of materials. Three dimensional (3) nanomaterials are those whose crystal size is in the range of several nanometers in at least one direction; Those with layered structure are called two-dimensional (2) nano materials; Those with fiber structure are called one-dimensional (1) nano materials; Those with atomic family and atomic beam structure are called zero dimensional (0) nanomaterials. After more than ten years of development, nano materials have made great progress. Nowadays, there are many kinds of nano materials, which can be divided into metal materials, nano ceramic materials, nano semiconductor materials, nano polymer materials, nano composite materials, etc. They are more or less applied in the field of packaging

with the increasing demand for special functions of packaging in the 21st century, such as explosion-proof packaging, anti electromagnetic packaging, camouflage packaging, high resistance packaging, shadow packaging, anti radar packaging and other needs have emerged, promoting the development of nano packaging technology. Nanocomposite packaging materials made of nano materials have become a kind of high-tech materials we need. It not only greatly improves the performance of raw materials and endows them with new functions, but also broadens the application scope and bright prospects of raw materials, and saves scarce resources

at present, nano materials have not only been put into production, but also have been applied on a large scale

1nanoelectronics, optoelectronics and magnetism

the macroscopic tunneling effect of nanoparticles establishes the limit of miniaturization of microelectronic devices. The limit will be reached within ten years. At present, the ideas to solve nano electronic circuits can be divided into two categories. One is to use the quantum entangled state in the two-photon beam technology in the integrated circuit made by lithography, which may reduce the limit of the device to 25nm. The other is to develop new materials to replace silicon, using protein diodes and carbon nanotubes as leads and molecular wires. Monatomic manipulation is an important way to form new concept devices

2 nano medicine and biology

from protein, DNA, RNA to virus, they are all in the scale of nm, so nanostructures are also basic things in life phenomena. Organelles and other structural units in cells are "nano machines" that perform certain functions. Cells are like "nano workshops". Photosynthesis in plants are typical examples of "nano factories". The size of nanoparticles is often smaller than the cells and red blood cells in organisms, which provides a new opportunity for medical research

biochips being developed include cell chips, protein chips (biomolecular chips) and gene chips (DNA chips), which have the advantages of integration, parallel and rapid detection, and have become the cutting-edge technology of nano bioengineering. It will be directly applied to clinical diagnosis, drug development and human genetic diagnosis. After being implanted into the human body, people can enjoy medical treatment anytime and anywhere, and can find the precursor information of disease in dynamic detection, making early diagnosis and prevention possible

nano disease area without harming normal tissues or removing thrombus and fat deposits in cardio cerebrovascular vessels, and it can even be used to devour viruses and kill cancer cells. The other is nano materials developed by using the activity of biomolecules. They can not be used in organisms, but can be used in other nano technologies or biomaterials. One is nano materials suitable for organisms, such as various nano sensors, for early diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of diseases. Various nano mechanical systems can quickly identify the location of the disease area and inject drugs into micro manufacturing in a targeted manner

3 application in national defense science and technology

the research focus of Nanotechnology at home and abroad mainly focuses on improving the processing technology and improving the mechanical properties of materials. Technology will have a revolutionary impact on the field of national defense and military. For example, nano electronic devices will be used for real-time contact between virtual training system and battlefield; Nano detection system for chemical, biological and nuclear weapons; New nano materials can improve the strike and protection ability of conventional weapons; Small robots made of nano micro mechanical systems can complete special reconnaissance and strike tasks; Nanosatellites can be launched by a small carrier rocket. They can form satellites according to different orbits to monitor every corner of the earth, making the battlefield more transparent. The application of nano materials in stealth technology is particularly noticeable. In radar stealth technology, the preparation of ultra-high frequency electromagnetic wave absorbing materials is the key. Nano materials are being developed as a new generation of stealth materials

4 reinforcement and toughening of nano ceramics

advanced ceramic materials play an irreplaceable role in harsh environments such as high temperature and strong corrosion. However, brittleness is an insurmountable weakness of ceramic materials. Nano ceramics have superplasticity similar to metals, which is the focus of attention in the research of nano materials. At present, the preparation of nano ceramic powder is relatively mature, and new processes and methods continue to appear, which has a production scale. The preparation methods of nano ceramic powder mainly include gas phase method, liquid phase method, high-energy ball milling method and so on. Gas phase method includes inert gas condensation method, plasma method, gas pyrolysis method, electron beam evaporation method, etc. Liquid phase method includes chemical precipitation method, alkoxide solution method, sol-gel method, hydrothermal method, etc

5 application in catalysis

catalyst plays an important role in many chemical and chemical fields. It can control reaction time, improve reaction efficiency and reaction speed. Semiconductor Photocatalysts are widely used as catalysts, especially in the preparation of organic compounds

6. Application in coatings

nano materials have excellent properties that are difficult for ordinary materials due to their special surface and structure, and show strong vitality. Surface coating technology is also a hot spot in the world today. Nano materials provide a good opportunity for surface coating, which makes it possible to functionalize materials. With the help of traditional coating technology, adding nano materials can obtain nano composite system coating, realize the leap of function, and make the traditional coating function modified. Nano coatings have good application prospects, which will bring a new technological revolution to coating technology and promote the research, development and application of composites

7. Application in other fine chemicals

fine chemicals is a huge industrial field, with a wide range of products, a wide range of uses, and affect all aspects of human life. The superiority of nano materials will undoubtedly bring good news to fine chemical industry and show its unique strength. Nano materials can play an important role in fine chemical fields such as rubber, plastics and coatings

nanoscience is a new science that integrates basic science and applied science, mainly including nano electronics, nano materials, nano biology, etc. The 21st century will be the era of nanotechnology. The application of nano materials involves various fields and has broad application prospects in the fields of machinery, electronics, optics, magnetism, chemistry and biology. The birth of nanoscience and technology will have a far-reaching impact on human society, and it is possible to fundamentally solve many problems faced by mankind, especially major generals such as energy, human health and environmental protection ε- The copolymerization of Cl and dl-la can obtain faster degradation rate. Nano materials will become a brilliant star in the field of materials science, and play a decisive role in new materials, energy, information and other fields. With the continuous development of its preparation and modification technology, nano materials will be increasingly widely used in fine chemicals, pharmaceutical production and many other fields

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